Technology 101: A Quick Guide On An Evolving Industry


Technology is the development and use of instrument or techniques that make human life better.

Today, the tech world is associated with cutting-edge innovation – areas like IT, the Internet, medical technology, robotics, energy, technology on a scale smaller than what is visible with your average microscope (nanotechnology), and space technology, to name a few.

This guide will focus on three of the major fields in technology today: information technology (IT), telecommunications (web), and software.

Information Technology (IT)

Information Technology is broadly defined as the use of systems for storing, retrieving, and sending information – often in the context of business or other enterprise.

Today, information technology is almost entirely electronic. This means organization and communication information is dealt with electronically, usually through computer hardware, software systems, or across networks (or telecommunications).

IT has effectively shaped and redesigned a lot of what people do and use everyday, including fields like business, education and healthcare. It has shaped how businesses share, organize and communicate information electronically, particularly in regards to finance, human resources, and security. This includes building and developing computer hardware and software communication systems for private businesses and organizations internally. IT professionals help build secure and user-friendly electronic networks to help organizations do what they do more efficiently.


Telecommunications is a sub-field in the tech world which fits under the umbrella of Information Technology. It’s defined as the communication of information by technological means, over great distances – exclusively through electronic signals and electromagnetic waves.

Today, the telecommunication industry is a powerhouse industry. With the advent of radio, television, satellite, internet, social media and instant messaging, the gap between space and time has eroded, making communication across great distances, instantaneous.

Telecommunication networks have grown exponentially in just the last few decades. From 1986 to 2007, the world’s telecommunication networks grew from 281 petabytes (1PT = 1M GB) to 2.2 exabytes (1 EB = 1B GB). This growth and reliance on telecommunications means its plays a huge role in the world’s economy: $4.7 Trillion in 2012, to be exact.

Hardware & Software

Hardware refers to the physical elements that constitute a computing system. Software, on the other hand, is the set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer’s processor to perform specific operations. These elements are two-sides of the same coin. Hardware cannot function without software, and software can’t exist without a platform (hardware) to operate on.

Today, the tech world is dedicated to researching and developing new innovations in hardware and software. Software engineers and consultants are among the highest paid occupations of any industry.

Companies like Apple or Sony are successful largely due to their ability to design and seamlessly integrate incredible hardware with equally impressive and intuitive software.

Our Technology Career Guide is your stop for industry-related articles and resources. Check it out!